Q1 – A mix of Herzberg, Schein and Expectant theory. Applied at all levels. A major challenge I encounter is prioritisation. People may want to change but feel they have too much on their plate. So a lot is achieved by working with management to improve the conditions / expectations they feel the need to perform to.
Q2 – As a consultant, I often see Behavourist approaches to change i.e. offer more money and/ or ostracize/dismiss. More effective approaches use a mix of Expectant Theory and Schein. Whereby the focus is on assessing the change impact and individual concerns (“Pain-points”) of the stakeholders, then addressing these through narrative and actions. COM-B (competence + opportunity + motivation = behaviour) is also a model I’ve seen successfully applied. Whereby the focus is on ensuring those 3 motivators/ needs are addressed e.g. sales training. Provide dedicated offsite time to raise competence. Carve out time for this to happen and for follow-on. Tangible habit forming a la James Clear (Atomic Habits). To both ignite and sustain the motivation.